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The Science of Windscreen Repairing

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The Science of Windscreen Repairing

The common windscreen on a car can be damaged in two unique ways. A chip and a crack. A chip in the windscreen clearly marks the point of impact. The impact can be like a star break, bulls-eye, partial, crack chip or pit. Cracks create a line in the glass ranging from under an inch up to the full width of a windscreen. A crack normally runs horizontally, vertically or in a wavy line.   

A damaged windscreen is always recommended to be repaired immediately from a specialised repairer such as This is because even the smallest damage from a chip can develop rapidly into cracks. At that stage, a windscreen replacement will be required. A windscreen that is damaged can cause poor visibility while driving and poses a safety risk.


Is it possible to repair a windscreen?

Size or the chip or crack: Technology to repair a windscreen is rapidly advancing meaning the ability to repair large chips and cracks varies on the company repairing. Chips smaller than a quarter and cracks which are up to three inches long can repair very easily.

Depth: This depends on how deep the damage penetrates in the windscreen. A windscreen is a glass sandwich which consists of an outer layer of glass, a plastic interlayer and an inside layer of glass. If the windscreen damage is through the outer and inner layer of the glass then it’s obviously not easy to repair.

Location: The damage location affects the ability to repair a windscreen. If the damage goes beyond the outer layer of the glass then the windscreen is already damaged beyond repair and a new windscreen has to be replaced. Another location where a windscreen cannot be repaired is when the damage occurs at the driver’s line of sight. The windscreen repair will definitely cause a distortion which can impair a driver’s view of the road.


Windscreen repairing cost

A damaged windscreen in most instances are included in the insurance policies as part of the premium, therefore, a vehicle owner does not incur any cost.  Although in some cases an insurance policy may charge excess cost after assessing the windscreen damage. Repairing a windscreen depends on some factors like location and the size or the crack as well the type of the vehicle.

Types of windscreen damages

Change of temperatures: A dramatic change of extreme temperatures can make windscreen to expand or contract. A vehicle owner is required not to leave a vehicle in direct sunlight on a hot day and also not to let cold air conditioning if the vehicle is very hot. The vehicle should adjust gradually.

Road Debris: Rocks, pebbles, and gravel are thrown from other vehicles ahead on the road while driving hitting the windscreen directly can cause windscreen to shatter or crack. One is required to keep a distance from the vehicle ahead and reduce speed during overtaking especially while driving on a gravel, dirt road or areas where construction sites are.

Windscreen quality or poor installation: Incorrect installation of the windscreen causing cracking there it is important to make sure a windscreen installed by an experienced technician with high-quality materials.

Collisions:  This is the most common cause of windscreen damage.  It can be caused by a traffic accident where two more accidents occur, a driver hitting an animal or children hitting a vehicle accidentally while playing. Collisions can be avoided by driving carefully and being aware of the surrounding away from playing fields.

Scientific Discoveries that Changed Lives

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Scientific Discoveries that Changed Lives

We have heard about great inventions from some of the best scientists that ever lived such as Stephen Hawking and James Watson among others. These inventions did not start a few years ago but they have been around for centuries. It’s these extra-ordinary discoveries that played a huge role in how easy life is today.


  • Michael Faraday’s Electricity Discoveries


Imagine your world without electricity? Life would never be the same. A lot of things that makes our lives easier depend highly on electricity thanks to Michael Faraday.

The great scientific discoveries led to the electric motor and the first generator development. Today, there are huge generators and electric motors that run numerous machinery.


  • The Discovery of Australopithecus


There are different believes and scientific disciplines about the origin of man. One of the most important scientific discoveries about human evolution is the discovery of Australopithecus by an unnamed South African.

The person discovered a skull that was initially thought to be of an ape but later it was confirmed to be of a man after Raymond Dart took over the investigations.

  • Carl Wilhelm Scheele’s Oxygen Discovery


For humans and animals to have a life, they need oxygen. This is a chemical element that was discovered back in the year 1772 by Carl Wilhelm Scheele, a Swedish Pharmacist and named it as the “fire air”. In the year 1774, Joseph Priestly also discovered Oxygen which he named “dephlogisticated air”.

Despite these discoveries, it’s Antoine Lavoisier, a French scientist who proved that animal life respiration was supported by this chemical element.


  • The Fingerprints Discovery by Jan Evangelista Purkinje


One of the questions that many ask is how one can tell the difference between fingerprints from different people. This is a mystery to many who do not understand how one can tell that fingerprints have been left on the items that you have touched despite them not being visible.

This is one of the most important discoveries in law enforcement as it is used across the globe to solve crimes and identify criminals with ease. This great discovery happened back in the year 1823, which owes its success to Jan Evangelista Purkinje.


  • The Law of Universal Gravitation By Isaac Newton


Isaac Newton is one of the most famous and great scientists that ever lived. It is this physicist and English mathematician that made sense to why things fall down instead of going up to the skies. This is the law of universal gravitation that explained that objects are drawn towards each other by a force known as gravity.

The negative impact of science

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The negative impact of science

Science has had a positive impact on our lives. Things that were difficult and cumbersome can now be done effortlessly. Thanks to science, we can travel to distant areas quickly; information can be sent and received within a short period of time.  The advantages of science are many and everybody is benefiting a lot from it. The evolution of science has also affected humans in some negative ways.

In this article, we are going to be looking at some of the disadvantages of science and technology.

Environment impact

It is obvious that the environment has been negatively affected by the advancement of science and technology. Environmental issues are one of the biggest issues the Earth is facing. Increased global warming, climatic changes, depleting the ozone layer, animal extinction and the list goes on. The establishment of mega factories and plants has negatively impacted the environment and the lives of humans. Urbanization, research, and development are scientific advancements that have improved the quality of our lives, but the price of these advancements is too high to be overlooked.

Health impact

Medical science is indeed a blessing to mankind. Medicines produced over the world are seen by many as the best way to cure a person’s illness. But there are some negative points associated with medical science. For example, excessive consumption of drugs can lead to a serious health condition and even death. Incorrect consumption of drugs can lead to serious health conditions that are almost impossible to cure.

Medical advancement has improved the quality of our lives but it comes with perils of all kinds. A mistake or slight ignorance can often result in serious consequences.

Technological impact

Technology made complex tasks simple. Activities that took weeks and months to complete can now be done within days. However, it has made use too engaged or occupied to see our loved ones. The use of technology has been linked to a series of health conditions. Many today are completely reliant and dependent on appliances and electronic gadget.

A lot of people now spend a large chunk of their time operating their laptop and playing video games. With zero physical activity, they likely will become obese.

Final note

Science has improved the quality of our lives, things that were once viewed as impossible are now possible because of science. But science has its fair share of woes. It is presently affecting certain areas of our lives in a negatively.

Scientists who regretted their inventions

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Scientists who regretted their inventions

Memorial Day is a solemn holiday that is devoted to remembering brave men and women who lost their lives in war. These brave soldiers made the ultimate sacrifice to protect their country. They surely deserve respect.

Many today have not really given much thought to the scientist that made machine and devices to saved lives. In this article, we are going to be looking at some scientist who made remarkable inventions with a view to saving lives but later came to see that their inventions intensified the war they wanted to stop.

Alfred Nobel

Alfred Nobel invented dynamite. He was a Swedish chemist, engineer, and inventor. He could speak five languages fluently by the age of seventeen. He is known by many as the creator of the Nobel Peace Prize. His devotion to the Peace prize originated from his invention- dynamite.

In 1867, he invented the dynamite as a safer and stable form of explosive. He thought that if he could make dynamite more stable, his invention would end the war. Sadly, the reverse was the case; his invention was weaponized by the army. Back in the days, dynamite explosion caused so many deaths. Nobel, was not happy with the reputation his invention gave him. And that is why he devoted a large number of his resources to establish the Peace Prize.

Arthur Galston

Arthur Galston was a popular American biologist, who devoted his time, resources and career towards helping plants grow. He concentrated on synthesizing triiodobenozoic acid, a hormone that could hasten up the flowering of Soya beans when used in low concentration. His research on TIBA was used by warfare scientist to formulate chemical weapon. They created an agent orange and used it to destroy enemy camps during the Vietnam War. The agent also caused severe birth defect and long-term health problems for adults.

The use of the Agent Orange was stopped in 1971. Galston felt guilty because his research resulted in the death of thousands of people.

Mikhail Kalashnikov

The focus of Mikhail Kalashnikov was on protecting his country. He enlisted in the army to do that. When he heard his comrades complaining about their rifles, he combined his interest in machinery and weaponry to design a better one. He created the AK-47” the world most prolific rifle”. Back in the day, the gun was sold at a very cheap price.

He later wished that he had not created something that could end a human life so easily, before he died he wrote a letter to the Russian Orthodox Church to beg for forgiveness.

Most dangerous scientific experiments ever

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Most dangerous scientific experiments ever

Science has improved the quality of our lives in immeasurable ways, it can be a force for good. That said, this powerful tool can become dangerous, especially when it gets entangled in greed and politics. The inherent ambitions for science to push boundaries of what we currently know have to lead to some mind- puzzling moments.

In this article, we are going to be looking at some dangerous scientific experiment ever carried out.

Project MKUltra

This was CIA’s attempt to mastermind control. The program lasted for 16 years. Under MKUltra, unwilling subjects were often given drugs like LSD. The test subjects were put through sleep deprivation, sexual abuse, hypnosis and other kinds of torture.

The purpose of the project was to create mind-controlling drugs.

Weaponizing the plague

The plague killed half of Europe population, the last time it roamed around. More than one hundred million people died.  The Soviet Union’s biological warfare program found out how to weaponize the plague. Beside the plague, the soviet also had other bio-weapon programs. They had tons of smallpox and anthrax.

The Hadron supercollider

The LCH in Switzerland is the largest machine and most sophisticated scientific instrument ever made. It was built to study particle physics. Because of the technology that was involved, the general public was skeptical about it.  The LHC has been blamed for pulling asteroids and causing earthquakes.

There has also been some conspiracy theory that surrounds this technology. It has been accused of potentially creating a large black hole that could destroy the earth.

The organization running it (CERN ) has claimed that it is not dangerous but acknowledges that a black hole could be created by it.

The Tuskegee Syphilis experiment

A government-backed study from 1932 to 1972 denied 399 African American patients the treatment for syphilis. Even after it was discovered that penicillin was effective against it in 1947, the sick patients were not told.

The purpose of the experiment was to study the natural process of syphilis if left untreated. Twenty-eight of the people in the study died from syphilis while hundreds died from complication relating to the disease.

Guatemalan STD study

In the pursuit of science, the U.S government deliberately infected 1500 Guatemalans with sexually transmitted disease (STD) like gonorrhea. The test subjects were prostitutes, military conscripts, and orphans. The researchers used disease infected injection and prostitute to make their test subject sick.

The test subjects have currently sued (JHU) for the role it took in the study.

Interesting ways science has made life easier

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Interesting ways science has made life easier

In the past, the horse and the cart were regarded as an impressive technology. People used it to travel long distances quickly and carry heavy goods easily. There was more advancement in the horse-cart technology. Luxurious coaches were made to transport dignitaries. Other cart and coaches were made specifically for transporting goods.

Over the years, science has evolved. Science has developed and improved the way that we travel to the point that in this age and day, we have airplanes, automobile and space shuttles. These things make our lives so much easier.

Years ago, the major means of communication was by letters. The time frame between the mailing and delivery was not indefinite. There was no way to confirm if the recipients receive the letter until he or she responded. The telegram came and changed the communication industry. People were amazed by this technology.

Presently, scientific developments now allow us to communicate instantaneously through social media platforms and the internet. There is no longer any delay in communication, information can be sent to anywhere in the world and received within seconds. There is now a window for people to communicate through video calls with dedicated programs like Facebook, Whatsapp, and Skype. The beauty of this technology is that you can fit it into your pocket and carry it with you.

A major problem with mobile devices is their poor battery life. Despite the fact that there has been some impressive technology, much effort has not been exerted to address the poor battery problem in our device.

In medieval times, soldier or knight walked with heavy metal armor that covered them from head to toe. Putting on these armors was a serious challenge to these knights.

Knight guarded figure of power and authority and had to be on the heavy and uncomfortable armor all day. These armors sometimes weighted more than 40kg. A huge amount of strength was needed to wear them and fight with them.

Science has played an important role in the lives of modern-day knights. With the invention of lightweight vests, deflect knives and synthetic materials. All these make it easier for them to carry out their duties easily.

Final note

These are just a couple of ways science has improved the quality of our lives. In years to come, there is likely going to be more and more advancement in science and technology.

7 greatest living scientists in the world today

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7 greatest living scientists in the world today

Over the years there have been a lot of scientific discoveries that have had a positive impact on the quality of our lives as humans. So, in this article, we are going to be looking at the men and women behind the greatest inventions of our time.

Timothy Berners- Lee

He invented a little something that we know as the World Wide Web. He is a British computer scientist and was knighted by Queen Elizabeth II for his amazing work. He made the first website in the world in the year 1991.

He is famous for his proposal to disperse or share information using Hypertext, which is the cornerstone of the World Wide Web.

Stephen Hawking

He is arguably the most famous scientist of our time. Stephen Hawking made a remarkable contribution to our understanding of relativity, black hole, and the big bang. Many were inspired by his bestselling book- “A Brief History of Time”

The British cosmologist and Theoretical physicist, Stephen Hawking is also known for his ideas in gravitational singularities in the framework of relativity.

The remarkable accomplishments of Stephen Hawking have inspired many people living with disabilities as he had suffered from ALS early in his life.

Elizabeth Blackburn

She is an American- Australian biologist, she won the Nobel prize for her research on anti-aging in 2009. She discovered an enzyme that is known as telomerase that helps to replenish the telomere.

Shinya Yamanaka

Shinya Yamanaka is a Japanese Nobel prize winner. He received this prize after his discovery that cells in the body can be converted into stem cells. He also received a breakthrough prize worth three million dollars in 2013.

Noam Chomsky

U.S firebrand political activist and linguist, He has influenced many fields of study. He is often described by many as the father of modern-day linguistics. He is also the founder of the field of cognitive science. Chomsky has written more than a hundred books. Today he is known as a critic of American foreign policy.

James Watson

Watson is an American molecular geneticist and biologist, He was known by many as a co-discoverer of the double helix structure of the DNA. He was awarded a Nobel prize in 1953.

Ashoke Sen

Ashoke Sen is an Indian theoretical physicist. He has won numerous awards for his work. He has made notable contributions in string theory.

Final note

These men and women have made notable contributions in the field of science and their work has inspired many all around the world.